Contact infoExternal Economy, Economic Statistics
Stefan Gottschalck Anbro
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The statistics show Denmark's imports and exports of goods from/to all countries in the world distributed by about 9,300 different commodity codes. The statistics do not cover the External trade of the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
The statistics show Denmark’s imports and exports of goods from/to all countries in the world distributed by about 9,300 different commodity codes recorded by value, net weight in kilograms and any supplementary unit (e.g. liters, units or square meters).
The indices calculated are based on the same microdata as the statistics International trade in goods.
Commodity classifications are based on the groupings in the EU's Combined Nomenclature (CN). Furthermore, when statistical data are published, the current version of the UN's Standard Trade Classification (SITC) is applied. In addition, imports are grouped by use in accordance with an adapted version of the UN's Broad Economic Categories (BEC), while exports are grouped by industrial origin (KONJ), which is a Danish classification defined on the basis of SITC.
The Combined Nomenclature (CN) is the merchandise nomenclature applied by the EU when reporting data on EU trade and trade with non-EU countries. In the Danish External Trade in Goods Statistics the most detailed statistics published are classified according to the Combined Nomenclature. The Combined Nomenclature consists of around 9,300 commodity codes. A detailed description of the CN codes is available in the EU Official Journal dissemination of Combined Nomenclature.
When disseminating External Trade in Goods Statistics by broader commodity groups, the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Revision 4 is mostly used. The SITC Revision 4 has been used in the Danish external trade statistics since 1 January 2007 and consists of 2,970 5-digit commodity items, which can be aggregated to 1,033 4-digits, 260 3-digits, 66 2-digits, and 10 1-digit commodity items. Statistics on periods before 2007 are disseminated using older revisions of the SITC classification. The SITC classification was revised in 2007 because of a major revision in the Harmonized System (HS) Nomenclature which is the base for the SITC classification.
UN’s BEC classification (Broad Economic Categories) is with few exception based on SITC and consist of 7 main end-use categories. Each of the 7 categories of end-use in the BEC covers a number of commodity groups and is defined largely on the basis of SITC, so that all commodity items under a given SITC item are allocated to the same commodity group in BEC. Danish statistics are disseminated according to a modified version of the BEC classification.
The KONJ classification is a Danish classification where exports are classified by industrial origin comprising 8 categories of exports (by industrial origin), each covering a number of commodity groups and defined largely based on the SITC.
The distribution by partner countries is done according to the Geonomenclature of Eurostat which classified more than 200 different countries and territories.
Trade by enterprise characteristics used the Danish Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (DB07), which is 6-digit activity nomenclature based on EU’s NACE classification. First four digits in DB07 are the same as in the NACE.
There is no sector coverage in External Trade in Goods Statistics.
Statistical concepts and definitions
Partner Country: The country distribution is conducted in accordance with Eurostat's Geo-nomenclature classifying about 200 different countries and territories. In Extrastat, information on country of origin (country of manufacture) is collected and for imports information on country of dispatch and for exports information on country of destination is collected. In most situations, it is information on country of origin that is applied in Extrastat.
In Intrastat, only information on country of dispatch for imports and country of destination for exports is collected.
Specific goods and movements: A range of goods and movements of goods differ from the general external trade and in such cases the statistics are compiled according to other principles, e.g. vessels and aircraft, stores and supplies, sea products, electricity and natural gas. Natural gas is compiled using a combination of reported trade and meter measures. The trade with natural gas is compiled for countries that Denmark has pipelines to/from.
Statistical value: The value of the external trade is published as the so-called statistical value. For imports this value is called the cif-value (cost, insurance and freight), i.e. the value of the commodity at the Danish border or sea port, including the service costs connected to the delivery of the commodity to the Danish border, e.g. transport costs and insurance.
For exports the statistical value is equal to the fob-value (free on board), i.e. the value of the commodity at the point of export at the Danish border, including the costs connected to the transport of the commodity from the exporter to the export point at the Danish border or sea port.
Trade systems: External trade can be compiled according to two different principles: the general trade system and the special trade system.
General trade comprises all goods being moved into or out of the country, unless exceptions have been laid down in special rules (see below). Thus, imports cover all goods entering the country, including goods intended for re-export or goods that are, in actual fact, re-exported. Similarly, exports cover all goods leaving the country, whether processed in the country or have previously been imported (re-export).
External trade according to the special trade system excludes transactions between other countries and Danish customs bonded warehouses. Goods imported to a bonded warehouse are thus excluded from external trade based on the special trade principle and are only included when the goods are declared by the customs to Denmark.
Goods in transit, i.e. goods that are only being transported through the country, are excluded from the external trade statistics for special trade as well as general trade.
In connection with a revision of the external trade data in 1997, data from 1988 and onwards were revised according to the general trade system. However, the statistical office of the EU, Eurostat, publishes external trade statistics for the member states using the special trade system. Consequently, there are nominal differences between Statistics Denmark's and Eurostat's figures for Danish external trade in goods.
The statistical unit is commodities and commodities groups and partner country and country groups. In Trade by enterprise characteristics the legal enterprise unit is also used for identifying and defining the enterprises. The CVR number (Central Business Register) is the unit applied.
The statistical population consists of the enterprises which have external trade in goods and which report to either Intrastat or Extrastat For trade with EU countries, Intrastat, the population is defined as enterprises which have trade of a value which exceed an exemption threshold. For trade with non-EU countries, Extrastat, all traders are covered by the statistics.
In trade with EU countries, Intrastat, a statistical threshold is applied, based on the value of annual imports and exports to other EU Member States. The threshold is set by Statistics Denmark in compliance with the requirements of coverage stated in the EU legislation on Intrastat, and the limits are determined annually. Enterprises whose annual EU trade is below these limits are exempted from reporting detailed data under the Intrastat system. The Intrastat thresholds are set at levels where the enterprises reporting to Intrastat amount to minimum 93 per cent of the total value of EU imports and minimum 97 per cent of EU exports.
The Intrastat report obligation of the individual enterprises is based on their Intrastat reporting in previous year or on the amount of EU trade stated at their VAT statements. At the VAT statements the enterprises have to state the value of purchases of goods from other EU countries (box A) and the value of sales of goods to other EU countries (box B).
In trade with non-EU countries, Extrastat, there is no actual statistical population, as all transactions in principle are collected through the customs declarations submitted to the Danish Customs Authorities.
The statistics cover Denmark’s imports and exports of goods from/to all countries in the world. The statistics do not cover the External trade of the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
The statistics cover the period from 1988 and onwards. Time series covering previous years are only available in paper publications and are described further in section ‘Comparability – over time’.
In the indices covering External Trade of Goods the base period is 2015 for the Volume and Unit Value Indices.
Unit of measure
The units of measure in the statistics are value in Danish crowns (DKK), net weight in kilograms and for many commodity codes also a supplementary unit (e.g. litres, units or square metres), all distributedby commodity codes and partner countries.
Frequency of dissemination
The statistics are published monthly.
Legal acts and other agreements
Act on Statistics Denmark (Consolidated act No. 599 of June 22, 2000) and Consolidated act No. 1495 of December 16, 2004 of the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs Regulation (EC) No 638/2004 of The European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 on Community statistics relating to the trading of goods between Member States and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 3330/91, with associated changes.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1982/2004 of 18 November 2004 implementing Regulation (EC) No 638/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to the trading of goods between Member States and repealing Commission Regulations (EC) No 1901/2000 and (EEC) No 3590/92, with associated changes.
Regulation (EC) No 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 1172/95.
Commission Regulation (EU) No 92/2010 of 2 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards data exchange between customs authorities and national statistical authorities, compilation of statistics and quality assessment.
Commission Regulation (EU) No 113/2010 of 9 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards trade coverage, definition of the data, compilation of statistics on trade by business characteristics and by invoicing currency, and specific goods or movements Council Regulation (EEC) No 2658/87 of 23 July 1987 on the tariff and statistical nomenclature and on the Common Customs Tariff.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1779/2002 of 4 October 2002 on the nomenclature of countries and territories for the external trade statistics of the Community and statistics of trade between Member States Council Regulation (EEC) No 2913/92 of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code.
Cost and burden
For Intrastat the response burden is estimated as DKK 49.0 million in 2014 distributed across around 7,500 enterprises.
In contrast, as an administrative source Extrastat does not impose any additional response burden on enterprises.
External Trade in Goods has a subject page.